Kubernetes: Ingress Overview

What is Ingress? Introduction to Ingress and Types of Ingress

What is Ingress?

Ingress exposes HTTP and HTTPS routes from outside the cluster to services within the cluster. Traffic routing is controlled by rules defined on the Ingress resource.

An Ingress may be configured to give Services externally-reachable URLs, load balance traffic, terminate SSL/TLS, and offer name-based virtual hosting. An Ingress controller is responsible for fulfilling the Ingress, usually with a load balancer, though it may also configure your edge router or additional frontends to help handle the traffic.

Here is a simple example where an Ingress sends all its traffic to one Service:

Note: You must have an Ingress controller to satisfy an Ingress. Only creating an Ingress resource has no effect. You may need to deploy an Ingress controller such as ingress-nginx. You can choose from a number of Ingress controllers.

Types of Ingress

Simple fanout

A fanout configuration routes traffic from a single IP address to more than one Service, based on the HTTP URI being requested. An Ingress allows you to keep the number of load balancers down to a minimum. For example, a setup like:

would require an Ingress such as:

apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
name: simple-fanout-example
spec:
rules:
- host: foo.bar.com
http:
paths:
- path: /foo
pathType: Prefix
backend:
service:
name: service1
port:
number: 4200
- path: /bar
pathType: Prefix
backend:
service:
name: service2
port:
number: 8080

Name based virtual hosting

Name-based virtual hosts support routing HTTP traffic to multiple host names at the same IP address.

The following Ingress tells the backing load balancer to route requests based on the Host header.

apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
name: name-virtual-host-ingress
spec:
rules:
- host: foo.bar.com
http:
paths:
- pathType: Prefix
path: "/"
backend:
service:
name: service1
port:
number: 80
- host: bar.foo.com
http:
paths:
- pathType: Prefix
path: "/"
backend:
service:
name: service2
port:
number: 80

TLS

You can secure an Ingress by specifying a Secret that contains a TLS private key and certificate. The Ingress resource only supports a single TLS port, 443, and assumes TLS termination at the ingress point (traffic to the Service and its Pods is in plaintext). If the TLS configuration section in an Ingress specifies different hosts, they are multiplexed on the same port according to the hostname specified through the SNI TLS extension (provided the Ingress controller supports SNI).

Load balancing

An Ingress controller is bootstrapped with some load balancing policy settings that it applies to all Ingress, such as the load balancing algorithm, backend weight scheme, and others. More advanced load balancing concepts (e.g. persistent sessions, dynamic weights) are not yet exposed through the Ingress. You can instead get these features through the load balancer used for a Service.

For More details, see:

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Able Lv

Able Lv

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Cloud Infrastructure Engineer @Airwallex: Kubernetes, DevOps, Terraform, Istio, Go, and Cloud-Native stuff